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Precision refers to the repeatability of a measurement and is an indication of how sharply a result has been defined. It does not require us to know the correct or true value. A survey of positioning systems can be found in [183]. 11 (Radar [71, 171], Ubisense [39], Ekahau [13]) infrared (Active Badge [323]) ultrasonic (Cricket [301, 302], Active Bat [307]) Bluetooth [171, 77, 148, 318, 94, 64, 171] 4g [322] vision (EasyLiving [236, 29]) physical contact with pressure (Smart Floor), touch sensors or capacitive detectors A location-sensing system may infer the position using statistical analysis or pattern matching techniques on measurements acquired during a training and run-time phase.

34 2 7DS architecture for information sharing Fig. 10. An example of accumulation of votes on grid cells of a host at different time steps. The brighter an area, the more voting weight has been accumulated on the corresponding grid cells. The brightest area corresponds to a potential solution. The grid cell is too small to be distinguishable. 4 Location-sensing using the peer-to-peer paradigm 35 Each node tries to position itself on its local grid. To determine its location, each node h gathers position estimates from other peers, and computes its own location using the Algorithm 2.

These values are computed iteratively using one of the following approaches: • • A simple voting algorithm, through which a local CLS instance casts votes on cells of the grid. A vote on a cell indicates the likelihood that the local device is located in the corresponding area of that cell. A particle filter-based model. CLS can incorporate additional information to improve its location estimates. , topological information about the environment, mobility patterns, hotspots of the area), and signal-strength-based signatures of the physical space, to improve the location estimation.

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