Download AI in the 1980s and Beyond: An MIT Survey by William Eric Leifur Grimson, Ramesh S. Patil PDF

By William Eric Leifur Grimson, Ramesh S. Patil

This choice of essays via 12 individuals of the MIT employees, offers an inside of record at the scope and expectancies of present learn in a single of the world's significant AI facilities. The chapters on man made intelligence, specialist platforms, imaginative and prescient, robotics, and usual language supply either a wide assessment of present parts of job and an evaluate of the sector at a time of serious public curiosity and fast technological development. Contents: man made Intelligence (Patrick H. Winston and Karen Prendergast). KnowledgeBased platforms (Randall Davis). Expert-System instruments and strategies (Peter Szolovits). clinical prognosis: Evolution of platforms construction services (Ramesh S. Patil). man made Intelligence and software program Engineering (Charles wealthy and Richard C. Waters). clever usual Language Processing (Robert C. Berwick). computerized Speech attractiveness and realizing (Victor W. Zue). robotic Programming and synthetic Intelligence (Tomas Lozano-Perez). robotic fingers and Tactile Sensing (John M. Hollerbach). clever imaginative and prescient (Michael Brady). Making Robots See (W. Eric L. Grimson). self reliant cellular Robots (Rodney A. Brooks). W. Eric L. Grimson, writer of From photographs to Surfaces: A Computational research of the Human Early imaginative and prescient method (MIT Press 1981), and Ramesh S. Patil are either Assistant Professors within the division of electric Engineering and laptop technological know-how at MIT. AI within the Eighties and past is incorporated within the synthetic Intelligence sequence, edited by means of Patrick H. Winston and Michael Brady.

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Neverthe­ less, there are some characteristics that typically identify an expert system, based on the type of problem it is solving, the form in which its knowledge is encoded, etc. Many expert systems have been implemented to solve problems that are some form of diagnostic reasoning, ranging from medical diagnosis to troubleshooting generators, locomotives, and telephone networks. Many expert systems use simple if-then rules to express their bits of knowledge, with a uniform rule interpreter to link together such rules into more com­ plex, longer chains of inference.

This is also one example of information technology used as a strategic weapon. Given, for example, the typically extensive databases compiled by financial planners about their clients, new product marketing strategies be­ come possible, including automatic, very narrow targeting of new products to a carefully selected subset of the customer base. What are we likely to see in the near future? More systems like PLANPOWER will appear, that is, more systems designed for non­ technical, service-oriented end-users, systems that permit companies to attack new markets and provide new services.

The most important such method matches characteristics of a situation to stored profiles of common situations (often called frames) in order to identify which one best matches the case at hand. In medical diagnosis, for example, situations correspond to diseases and characteristics to the signs, symptoms and laboratory data commonly associated with each disease. General matching methods, pos­ sibly based on additional measures of likelihood or seriousness, can be used to compute the degree of match, and general information-acquisition strategies can determine what additional tests should be performed in or­ der to best differentiate between competing hypotheses.

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