By Krivenko, P. V.; Roy, D. M.; Shi, Caijun
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Extra info for Alkali-activated cements and concretes
Among the three activators, sodium metasilicate-activated slag cement gives the highest strength. It was also noticed that a replacement of 5–20% CaO with MgO in the glass does not essentially change the strength of the cements. However, the replacement of 5–15% SiO2 in the glass composition with TiO2 decreases strength. The decrease in strength is dependent upon the alkaline activator used. For example, with a 15% replacement of SiO2 with TiO2 in the synthetic slag, the strength of the cement is only 75% of the reference (Ti-free synthetic slag), when soda is used as an alkaline activator, 81% when sodium hydroxide is used, and 86% when sodium metasilicate is used.
The bond energies between these network formers and oxygen atoms are usually higher than 335 KJ/mol. Si and P are typical network formers in vitreous blast furnace slag. The higher the content of the network formers, the higher is the condensation degree of the glass. 3 Two-dimensional representation of crystalline and vitreous structure (based on Din 1979). Network modifiers have coordination number of 6 or 8, and have large ionic radii. The presence of network modifiers disorders and depolymerizes the network.
Mirabilite, the hydrous form, is commonly called Glauber’s salt as it was discovered by German chemist J. R. Glauber (1603–1668). 32% SO3 . It ranges from colourless to white and may be tinted shades of grey or brown. 9% by mass in water at 20 C. It commonly occurs in the massive form without visible crystals. Its crystals are frequently tabular pyramids of the orthorhombic system. It has a melting point of 882 C and decomposition temperature of 1100 C. 0 for 1% solution. 2 Resources of sodium sulphate Sodium sulphate comes from either natural resources or from various manufacturing processes.